The 9th Biennial Leon H. Sullivan Summit coming to Equatorial Guinea in August 2012

Website:

http://www.sullivansummit.org

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The 9th Biennial Leon H. Sullivan Summit is the premiere event on the continent of Africa bringing together government and corporate communities for the benefit of the African people.

The Sullivan Summits are organized by The Leon H. Sullivan Foundation and held biennially in an African nation to highlight key issues and best practices, stimulate discussion, define opportunities, promote private enterprise and foster high-level strategic partnerships.

The Biennial Leon H. Sullivan Summit is the embodiment of Leon Howard Sullivan’s dream to re-connect the nations and people of Africa with a displaced Diaspora spread out across the world.

Summit IX will continue past traditions and create an atmosphere of open dialogue about the state of human rights and the interconnected issues of modern Africa. The Summit, by creating unprecedented & open dialogue and building upon the Global Sullivan Principles, seeks to define the opportunities for both growth and continuous improvement in the quality of life for all Africans. While the economies of Africa grow and evolve, the corporations and government institutions involved must develop responsible strategies to involve the citizenry in its benefits, increase the quality of life and guarantee access to human rights that foster self-empowerment.

The Leon H. Sullivan Summit is the first internationally recognized Summit of world leaders, convened on African soil, by a non-governmental private foundation.

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Video: 2010 Leon H. Sullivan Summit in Africa


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Video: 2009 Leon H. Sullivan Summit in Africa


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Video: Leon H. Sullivan

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Video: Hope Masters is President and CEO of the Leon H. Sullivan Foundation

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Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea is lightly smaller than Maryland
 

Equatorial Guinea is the third-largest producer of crude oil in Sub-Saharan Africa, after Nigeria and Angola.

The country’s oil reserves are located mainly in the hydrocarbon-rich Gulf of Guinea. Equatorial Guinea’s total proven oil reserves are estimated at 1.1 billion barrels.

 
Ethnic groups: Fang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%, Annobon 1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4%
 
Languages: Spanish (official) 67.6%, other (includes French (official), Fang, Bubi) 32.4% (1994 census
 
Population:  685,991 (July 2011 est.)
 
Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, timber, small, unexploited deposits of gold, manganese, and uranium.
 

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular – provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas

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Malabo
 
 
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GEPetrol was established as the National Oil Company of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Video: Malabo

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Video: A flight over Equatorial Guinea

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Video: Oil boom Equatorial Guineans

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HISTORY
 

The first inhabitants of the region that is now Equatorial Guinea are believed to have been Pygmies, of whom only isolated pockets remain in northern Rio Muni. Bantu migrations between the 17th and 19th centuries brought the coastal tribes and later the Fang. Elements of the latter may have generated the Bubi, who immigrated to Bioko from Cameroon and Rio Muni in several waves and succeeded former Neolithic populations.

 
The Annobon population, native to Angola, was introduced by the Portuguese via Sao Tome.The Portuguese explorer, Fernando Po (Fernao do Poo) discovered the island of Bioko in 1471. He called it Formosa (“pretty flower”), but it quickly took on the name of its European discoverer. The Portuguese retained control until 1778, when the island, adjacent islets, and commercial rights to the mainland between the Niger and Ogoue Rivers were ceded to Spain in exchange for territory in South America (Treaty of El Pardo). From 1827 to 1843, Britain established a base on the island to combat the slave trade.
 
The Treaty of Paris settled conflicting claims to the mainland in 1900, and the mainland territories were united administratively under Spanish rule.Spain did not develop an extensive economic infrastructure but did develop large cacao plantations for internal consumption for which thousands of Nigerian workers were imported as laborers. At independence in 1968 Equatorial Guinea had one of the highest per capita incomes in Africa.
 
The Spanish also helped Equatorial Guinea achieve one of the continent’s highest literacy rates and developed a good network of health care facilities.In 1959, the Spanish territory of the Gulf of Guinea was established with status similar to the provinces of metropolitan Spain. As the Spanish Equatorial Region, a governor general ruled it exercising military and civilian powers.
 
The first local elections were held in 1959, and the first Equatoguinean representatives were seated in the Spanish parliament. Under the Basic Law of December 1963, limited autonomy was authorized under a joint legislative body for the territory’s two provinces.
 
The name of the country was changed to Equatorial Guinea. Although Spain’s commissioner general had extensive powers, the Equatorial Guinean General Assembly had considerable initiative in formulating laws and regulations.
 
In March 1968, under pressure from Equatoguinean nationalists and the United Nations, Spain announced that it would grant independence to Equatorial Guinea.
 
A constitutional convention produced an electoral law and draft constitution. A referendum was held on August 11, 1968, and 63% of the electorate voted in favor of the constitution, which provided for a government with a General Assembly and a Supreme Court with judges appointed by the president.
 
In September 1968, Francisco Macias Nguema was elected first president of Equatorial Guinea, and independence was granted in October. In July 1970, Macias created a single-party state and by May 1971, key portions of the constitution were abrogated. In 1972 Macias took complete control of the government and assumed the title of President-for-Life. The Macias regime was characterized by abandonment of all government functions except internal security, which was accomplished by terror; this led to the death or exile of up to one-third of the country’s population. Due to pilferage, ignorance, and neglect, the country’s infrastructure–electrical, water, road, transportation, and health–fell into ruin. Religion was repressed, and education ceased.
 
The private and public sectors of the economy were devastated. Nigerian contract laborers on Bioko, estimated to have been 60,000, left en masse in early 1976. The economy collapsed, and skilled citizens and foreigners left.

On August 3, 1979 Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo led a successful coup d’etat; Macias was arrested, tried, and executed. Obiang assumed the presidency in October 1979. Obiang initially ruled Equatorial Guinea with the assistance of a Supreme Military Council. A new constitution, drafted in 1982 with the help of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, came into effect after a popular vote on August 15, 1982; the Council was abolished, and Obiang remained in the presidency for a 7-year term. He was reelected in 1989.

A new constitution was approved in 1991 and amended in 1995. One-party rule formally ended in 1991 and political activities in Equatorial Guinea were legalized, but the opposition had few electoral successes in the 1990s. In September 1995, the country had its first freely contested municipal elections. Most observers agree that the elections themselves were relatively free and transparent and that the opposition parties garnered between two-thirds and three-quarters of the total vote. The government, however, delayed announcement of the results and then claimed a highly dubious 52% victory overall and the capture of 19 of 27 municipal councils.

In early January 1996 Obiang called for presidential elections. International observers agreed that the campaign was marred by fraud, and most of the opposition candidates withdrew in the final week. Obiang claimed re-election with 98% of the vote. In an attempt to mollify his critics, Obiang gave minor portfolios in his cabinet to people identified as opposition figures. In the legislative election in March 1999, the party increased its majority in the 80-seat parliament from 68 to 75. The main opposition parties refused the seats they had allegedly won. By early 2000, the President’s Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea (PDGE) party fully dominated government at all levels. In May 2000, the ruling PDGE overwhelmed its rivals in local elections.

Opposition parties rejected as invalid the December 2002 presidential election, which they boycotted. President Obiang was re-elected with 97% of the vote. Reportedly, 95% of eligible voters voted in this election, although many observers noted numerous irregularities. Following his re-election Obiang formed a government based on national unity encompassing all opposition parties, except for the Convergence for Social Democracy (CPDS), which declined to join after Obiang refused to release one of their jailed leaders. In the April 2004 parliamentary and municipal elections President Obiang’s Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea and allied parties won 98 of 100 seats in parliament and all but seven of 244 municipal posts. International observers criticized both the election and its results.

The May 4, 2008 legislative elections resulted in an overwhelming victory for the PDGE. Ninety-nine of the 100 seats in the assembly went to the PDGE while the Convergence for Social Democracy only received one. Results were similar in the municipal elections held the same day, granting PDGE 319 councilor seats while CPDS only gained 13. Some international election observers reported that the elections were generally conducted in a free and fair manner. Nevertheless, irregularities were reported, which included the barring of certain members of the international press. In November 2009, President Obiang won a new 7-year mandate with 95.4% of the vote in an election that was not boycotted by the opposition. The main opposition leader won 3.6% of the vote. He stated that he viewed the elections as neither fair nor free, but with the approval of the executive committee of his party, did not formally object to the election results.

Source: U.S. State Department

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