This is how “Historically Black Colleges and Universities” (HBCUs) became the “branding”

This is how “Historically Black Colleges and Universities” (HBCUs) became the “branding”

Morgan State University

Have you ever wondered when the term Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) became the “branding” for some institutions of higher education in the United States? Dilemma X shares this information to show when the nomenclature, “Historically Black Colleges and Universities” (“HBCUs”), became the popular way to describe and define some of the nation’s universities.

“Historically Black Colleges and Universities” (HBCUs) is the avant-garde term the federal government adopted to identify particular higher educational institutions, who would receive special federal assistance, due to past inadequate funding. These institutions were founded as predominantly black, although they didn’t not exclude whites or other races. They were predominantly black, because the U.S. had an official Apartheid system or Jim Crow. Admission, of African Americans, to some public colleges and universities would not be allowed until the landmark United States Supreme Court case, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954). Brown v. Board declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. This includes colleges and universities.

During President Lydon B. Johnson’s presidency, the Higher Education Act of 1965 was signed. It was a legislative document that was signed into law on November 8, 1965 to strengthen the educational resources of U.S. colleges and universities and to provide financial assistance for students in postsecondary and higher education. The law gave some direct financial support for what we now know as HBCUs.

The original Higher Education Act of 1965 attempted to better address funding for traditional black colleges. This was done via Title III Strengthening Developing Institutions, added on by Congressman Adam Clayton Powell.

The Higher Education Act of 1965 was reauthorized in 1968, 1972, 1976, 1980, 1986, 1992, 1998, 2008 and 2013. Before each reauthorization, Congress amended additional programs, changed the language and policies of existing programs, or made other changes.

The term “Historically Black Colleges and Universities” (“HBCUs”) began to be used by President Jimmy Carter.

The actual term “Historically Black Colleges and Universities” (“HBCUs”) was added to The Higher Education Act of 1965 by Congress, in 1986.  Title III was amended to include the term “Historically Black Colleges and Universities”. It was reauthorized and signed into law by President Ronald Reagan.

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The journey to being known as Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)
Ebony 1961 Future of Negro Colleges

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Adam Clayton Powell
First, who was Adam Clayton Powell?
Adam Clayton Powell

Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. was born in New Haven, Connecticut, on November 29, 1908 and grew up in New York City, New York. On November 1, 1937, Powell succeeded his father as pastor of Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem. In 1941, Powell was elected on the Democratic ticket as New York City’s first African American city council member. Powell was later elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, representing New York City- Harlem’s 22nd Congressional district from January 3, 1945 – January 3, 1953, becoming the first African American Congressman from New York State. He was the 4th African American elected to Congress in the 20th Century (1900s), the others three (3) were from Illinois. Powell would later be re-elected to represent New York’s 16th Congressional district from January 3, 1953 – January 3, 196; New York’s 18th Congressional district from January 3, 1963 – February 28, 1967 and from April 11, 1967 – January 3, 1971.

Powell became the first African American Chairman of the prestigious and powerful Education and Labor Committee in 1961. Powell would be defeated by Charles “Charlie” B.  Rangel.  Powell died at the age of 63 on April 4, 1972 .

Adam Clayton Powell 1963

adam clayton powell and malcolm x

Adam Clayton Powell and Dr. Martin Luther King

Powell and President Johnson
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Video/Audio: Telephone conversation between President Lyndon B. Johnson and Adam Clayton Powell
President Johnson begins his conversation at 3 minutes into the audio recording

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Adam Clayton Powell explains Black Power 1968

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The Higher Education Act of 1965 Title III Strengthening Developing Institutions
Traditional Black colleges were not yet identified as Historically Black Colleges and Universities
Higher Education Act of 1965 Title III Strengthening Developing Institutions

Read the original Act
Higher Education Act of 1965
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Dr. Grace L. Hewell
During the first session of the 89th Congress in 1965, Dr. Grace L. Hewell was appointed education chief for the House Committee on Education and Labor, chaired by Rep. Adam Clayton Powell Jr. (D-N.Y.), who had been her pastor at Abyssinian Baptist Church in New York City.

During the 89th Congress a conference committee reached an impasse on provisions of the Higher Education Act of 1965 that would expand continuing education programs and would provide greater opportunities for, what we now know as, historically black colleges and universities to compete for federal funds.

Dr. Hewell helped Adam Clayton Powell break the impasse and in the process forced the federal government to begin closing the gap between historically white and historically black education in the United States. –Source: Washington Post , April 10, 2008.

Dr. Grace L Hewell 1965
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Powell 1967
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Conyers on Powell 1967
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Rangel defeats Powell 1970
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Rangel Election over Powell 1970
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Black College funding 1970
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Richard Nixon -Predominantly Black Colleges
1970
Nixon funding to black colleges 1970
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Nixon Predominantly Black Colleges 1970
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Richard Nixon -Black Institutions/Colleges
1971
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Richard Nixon black colleges 1971

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Jimmy Carter -Historically Black Colleges and Universities
1979
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Jimmy Carter HBCU 1979
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Jet 1979 Black Colleges
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Jimmy Carter -Historically Black Colleges and Universities
1980
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Jimmy Carter -HBCUs 1980
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Ebony 1980
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Tony Brown Black Colleges 1981
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Ronald Reagan -Historically Black Colleges and Universities
1981
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Ronald Reagan -HBCUs 1981
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A joint resolution to designate the week of September 23, 1985, through September 29, 1985, as “National Historically Black Colleges Week”.
S.J.Res.186 – 99th Congress (1985-1986)
A joint resolution to designate the week of September 23, 1985, through September 29, 1985, as “National Historically Black Colleges Week”.

Sponsor: Sen. Strom Thurmond,[R-SC] (Introduced 08/01/1985)
strom thurmond
09/27/1985 Became Public Law No: 99-100.
09/27/1985 Signed by President Ronald Reagan.
09/25/1985 Senate Presented to President.
09/25/1985 Senate Measure Signed in Senate.
09/24/1985 House Passed House by Voice Vote.
09/13/1985 Senate Passed Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Voice Vote.
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Proclamation 5370 of September 27 1985 Ronald Reagan
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Ronald Reagan 1986
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Higher Education Act of 1965 Amended 1986
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Higher Education Act of 1965 Amended 1986 HBCUs -Part 00

Higher Education Act of 1965 Amended 1986 HBCUs -Part 01

Higher Education Act of 1965 Amended 1986 HBCUs -Part 02

Higher Education Act of 1965 Amended 1986 HBCUs -Part 03

Higher Education Act of 1965 Amended 1986 HBCUs -Part 04

Higher Education Act of 1965 Amended 1986 HBCUs -Part 05

Higher Education Act of 1965 Amended 1986 HBCUs -Part 06

Higher Education Act of 1965 Amended 1986 Cosponsors
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Read the entire reauthorized amendments for 1986
Higher Education Act of 1965- 1986 amendment
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Higher Education Act of 1965 Amended 2013
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Read the entire reauthorized amendments from 2013 
Higher Education Act of 1965- 2013 amendment

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Current Historically Black Colleges and Universities (4 year)

ALABAMA
Alabama A&M University Huntsville 1875 Public
Alabama State University Montgomery 1867 Public
Bishop State Community College Mobile 1927 Public
Concordia College -Alabama Selma 1922 Private
Miles College Fairfield 1905 Private
Oakwood University Huntsville 1896 Private
Selma University Selma 1878 Private
Stillman College Tuscaloosa 1876 Private
Talladega College Talladega County 1867 Private
Tuskegee University Tuskegee 1881 Private
ARKANSAS
University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff Pine Bluff 1873 Public
Arkansas Baptist College Little Rock 1884 Private
Philander Smith College Little Rock 1877 Private
Shorter College Little Rock 1886 Private
DELAWARE
Delaware State University Dover 1891 Public
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
University of the District of Columbia Washington 1851 Public
Howard University Washington 1867 Private
FLORIDA
Bethune-Cookman University Daytona Beach 1904 Private
Edward Waters College Jacksonville 1866 Private
Florida A&M University Tallahassee 1887 Public
Florida Memorial University Miami Gardens 1879 Private
GEORGIA
Albany State University Albany 1903 Public
Clark Atlanta University Atlanta 1865 Private
Fort Valley State University Fort Valley 1895 Public
Interdenominational Theological Center Atlanta 1958 Private
Morehouse College Atlanta 1867 Private
Morehouse School of Medicine Atlanta 1975 Private
Morris Brown College Atlanta 1881 Private
Paine College Augusta 1882 Private
Savannah State University Savannah 1890 Public
Spelman College Atlanta 1881 Private
KENTUCKY
Kentucky State University Frankfort 1886 Public
LOUISIANA
Dillard University New Orleans 1869 Private
Grambling State University Grambling 1901 Public
Southern University at New Orleans New Orleans 1959 Public
Southern University at Shreveport Shreveport 1967 Public
Southern University and A&M College Baton Rouge 1881 Public
Xavier University of Louisiana New Orleans 1915 Private
MARYLAND
Bowie State University Bowie 1865 Public
Coppin State University Baltimore 1900 Public
University of Maryland Eastern Shore Princess Anne 1886 Public
Morgan State University Baltimore 1867 Public
MISSISSIPPI
Alcorn State University Lorman 1871 Public
Jackson State University Jackson 1877 Public
Mississippi Valley State University Itta Bena 1950 Public
Rust College Holly Springs 1866 Private
Tougaloo College Hinds County 1869 Private
MISSOURI
Harris-Stowe State University St. Louis 1857 Public
Lincoln University of Missouri Jefferson City 1866 Public
NORTH CAROLINA
Barber-Scotia College Concord 1867 Private
Bennett College Greensboro 1873 Private
Elizabeth City State University Elizabeth City 1891 Public
Fayetteville State University Fayetteville 1867 Public
Johnson C. Smith University Charlotte 1867 Private
Livingstone College Salisbury 1879 Private
North Carolina A&T State University Greensboro 1891 Public
North Carolina Central University Durham 1910 Public
Shaw University Raleigh 1865 Private
St. Augustine’s University Raleigh 1867 Private
Winston-Salem State University Winston-Salem 1892 Public
OHIO
Central State University Wilberforce 1887 Public
Wilberforce University Wilberforce 1856 Private
OKLAHOMA
Langston University Langston 1897 Public
PENNSYLVANIA
Cheyney University of Pennsylvania Cheyney 1837 Public
Lincoln University Chester County 1854 Public
SOUTH CAROLINA
Allen University Columbia 1870 Private
Benedict College Columbia 1870 Private
Claflin University Orangeburg 1869 Private
Morris College Sumter 1908 Private
South Carolina State University Orangeburg 1896 Public
Voorhees College Denmark 1897 Private
TENNESSEE
American Baptist College Nashville 1924 Private
Fisk University Nashville 1866 Private
Knoxville College Knoxville 1875 Private
Lane College Jackson 1882 Private
LeMoyne-Owen College Memphis 1862 Private
Meharry Medical College Nashville 1876 Private
Tennessee State University Nashville 1912 Public
TEXAS
Huston-Tillotson University Austin 1881 Private
Jarvis Christian College Hawkins 1912 Private
Paul Quinn College Dallas 1872 Private
Prairie View A&M University Prairie View 1876 Public
Southwestern Christian College Terrell 1948 Private
St. Philip’s College San Antonio 1898 Public
Texas College Tyler 1894 Private
Texas Southern University Houston 1927 Public
Wiley College Marshall 1873 Private
VIRGINIA
Hampton University Hampton 1868 Private
Norfolk State University Norfolk 1935 Public
Virginia State University Petersburg 1882 Public
Virginia Union University Richmond 1864 Private
Virginia University of Lynchburg Lynchburg 1886 Private
WEST VIRGINIA
Bluefield State College Bluefield 1895 Public
West Virginia State University Institute 1891 Public
U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS
University of the Virgin Islands St. Croix & St. Thomas 1962 Public

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Florida A&M University

Howard University

North Carolina Central University

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