Brazil: In 2018 blacks became 50.3% of Brazil’s public higher education students

November 14, 2019

Africa, Did you know?, International

Brazil: In 2018 blacks became 50.3% of Brazil’s public higher education students
Blacks or browns are more educated, but inequality with whites remains
Pretos ou pardos estão mais escolarizados, mas desigualdade em relação aos brancos permanece

Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics
Social Statistics
Release Date; November 13, 2019

In 2018, in Brazil, blacks or browns became 50.3% of Brazil’s public higher education students, but, as the majority of Brazil’s national population (55.8%), they remained underrepresented.

Note: Brazil uses the terms browns / mulatto which are the racial classification of people who are born of one white parent and one black parent. In the United States the term mulatto is now commonly considered to be derogatory or offensive by many. In the United States a person of such racial background is commonly classified as black/African American

In addition, among the black or brown population of 18 to 24 years old who studied, the percentage attending higher education increased from 2016 (50.5%) to 2018 (55.6%), but was still below the percentage of whites in the same age group (78.8%).

In the same period, the percentage of young people aged 18 to 24 black or brown with less than 11 years of schooling and not attending school dropped from 2016 (30.8%) to 2018 (28.8%). This indicator was 17.4% among whites in 2018.

In the labor market, blacks or browns represented 64.2% of the unemployed population and 66.1% of the underutilized population, while 34.6% of white workers were in informal occupations, among blacks or browns this percentage was 47.3%.

The average monthly income of employed white people (R $ 2,796 / $668.31 US) was 73.9% higher than the black or brown population (R $ 1,608 / $384.35 US). Whites who have completed a higher education degree earned 45% more per hour than blacks or browns with the same level of education.

Inequality was also present in the distribution of managerial positions, only 29.9% of them were held by black or brown people. This is in a majority black nation, with the largest African descent population outside of Africa.

Regarding income distribution, blacks or browns represented 75.2% of the group consisting of the 10% of the population with the lowest incomes and only 27.7% of the 10% of the population with the highest incomes.

While 44.5% of the black or brown population lived in households with the absence of at least one basic sanitation service, among whites, this percentage was 27.9%.

Black or brown are most affected by violence. In all age groups, the homicide rate of blacks or mulattos exceeded that of whites. The homicide rate for blacks or browns aged 15 to 29 reached 98.5 in 2017, compared to 34.0 for whites. For young black or brown men, the rate was 185.0.

There is also no equality of color or race in political representation, only 24.4% of federal deputies(elected members of the National Congress of Brazil) , 28.9% of state deputies (elected members of the state Legislative Assemblies) and 42.1% of elected councilors (elected members of the municipal elections) were black or brown.

These data are from the study Social Inequalities by Color or Race in Brazil, which analyzes inequalities between whites and blacks or brown (mulattos) linked to work, income distribution, housing, education, violence and political representation. Access the full publication and background material for more information.

The analyzes of this study are concentrated only on the inequalities between whites and blacks or browns, due to the statistical restrictions imposed by the low representation of indigenous and yellows in the total Brazilian population when using sample data. In 2018, 43.1% of the Brazilian population was white; 9.3%, black; and 46.5%, brown. These three groups together accounted for 99% of the country’s total residents.

Education: Increases percentage of black or brown students in upper level, but color or race inequality remains

In 2018, in Brazil, black or brown students started to make up the majority in public higher education institutions (50.3%). However, as they made up 55.9% of the country’s total population, they remained underrepresented.

The entry level at the tertiary level (percentage of the population that completed at least high school and entered higher education, regardless of whether or not completed it) of blacks or browns was 35.4% and whites, 53. 2%.

The high school graduation rate (proportion of 20-22 year olds who completed this level) of the black or brown population was 61.8% and that of whites 76.8%. Although women had better educational indicators than men of the same color or race, the high school graduation rate of white men (72.0%) was higher than that of black or brown women (67.6%).

Among 18-24 year olds with complete high school who were not attending school because they had to work or look for work, 61.8% were black or brown.

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Black or brown illiteracy rate decreased from 9.8% (2016) to 9.1% (2018), but still higher than whites (3.9%)

Between 2016 and 2018, the illiteracy rate of black or brown people aged 15 and over went from 9.8% to 9.1%, but is still higher than that of whites (3.9%). In the same period, the proportion of people aged 25 and over with at least completed high school rose from 37.3% to 40.3%. Among the white population, this percentage was 55.8%.

Attendance at daycare or school for black or brown children aged 0 to 5 increased from 49.1% (2016) to 53.0% (2018), while that of white children was 55.8%. There was practically no difference between the proportion of children aged 6 to 10 white (96.5%) and black or brown (95.8%) in the early years of elementary school.

Indicative of dropping out of school, the proportion of people aged 18 to 24 black or brown with less than 11 years of schooling and not attending school dropped from 30.8% (2016) to 28.8% (2018). This percentage was 17.4% among whites.

Job market: 64% of the unemployed are black or brown

In 2018, blacks or browns represented 54.9% of the workforce in the country (57.7 million people) and whites 43.9% (46.1 million people). However, the black or brown population represented 64.2% of the unemployed and 66.1% of the underused. Moreover, while 34.6% of the white employed population was in informal occupations, for black or brown workers, this percentage reached 47.3%.

The composite underutilization rate of the black and brown population (29.0%) was higher than that of whites (18.8%). Inequality persisted even when considering education level clipping. Among those with at least higher education, this rate was 15.0% for blacks or browns and 11.5% for whites and among those with no education or incomplete elementary school: 32.9% and 22.4 %, respectively.

Blacks or browns receive less than whites regardless of education level
While the average income of white employed persons reached R $ 17.0 per hour ($4.06 US), that of blacks or browns was R $ 10.1 per hour ($2.41). Black or brown employed persons received lower hourly earnings than whites, regardless of educational level. Whites with a complete higher education earned 45% more than blacks or browns with the same level of education.

As for the income ratio, the advantage of white men over other combinations stands out. The longest distance occurs when compared to black or brown women, who receive less than half than white men (44.4%).

Only 29.9% of managerial positions are held by blacks or browns

The proportion of whites (68.6%) in managerial positions was higher than that of blacks or browns (29.9%) in 2018. Only in the North (61.1%) and the Northeast (56.3%), the proportion of blacks or browns in managerial positions was higher. But as such percentages are lower than the proportion of blacks or browns in the general employed population of these regions of Brazil (78.0% and 74.1%), the underrepresentation is also characterized.

The division into five income classes of the main job shows that the higher the income, the lower the occurrence of black or brown people in managerial positions. In the highest income class, only 11.9% of the people employed in managerial positions were black or brown and 85.9% white. On the other hand, in the lowest income managerial positions, there were 45.3% of blacks or browns and 53.2% of whites.

Income distribution: Blacks or browns represent 75.2% of the group formed by the 10% of the population with the lowest incomes.

In 2018, of the top 10 percent of the population with the highest incomes, only 27.7 percent were black or brown. On the other hand, blacks or browns represented 75.2% of the group formed by the 10% of the population with the lowest income. The average per capita household income of the white population (R $ 1,846 / $440.75 US) was almost twice that of the black or brown population (R $ 934 / $223 US).

The proportion of blacks or browns below the poverty lines proposed by the World Bank was more than double the proportion of whites. At the R$5.50 ($1.31 US) daily line, the poverty rate was 15.4% for whites and 32.9% for blacks or browns. Already on the extreme poverty line, while 3.6% of white people had incomes under R$1.90 ($0.45 US) per day, 8.8% of the black or brown population was below this line.

Housing conditions: 44.5% of blacks or browns live in households without at least one basic sanitation service

The 2010 Census found that in the city of São Paulo, 18.7% of blacks or browns lived in subnormal agglomerations, while among whites this percentage was 7.3%. In Rio de Janeiro, 30.5% of blacks and browns lived in subnormal agglomerations, while the percentage among whites was 14.3%.

In 2018, 44.5% of the black or brown population lived in households without at least one basic sanitation service (garbage collection, mains water supply and mains sewage). Among whites, this percentage was 27.9%.

Excessive household densification (more than three residents for each room used as dormitory at home) occurred among blacks or browns at a frequency (7.0%) almost twice that of whites (3.6%). Excessive rent burdens (rent equals or exceeds 30% of household income) reached 5.0% of blacks and browns and 4.6% of whites.

The occurrence of these two inadequacies is much more common among home arrangements made up of women without a spouse and with children up to 14 years old. Among the black or brown population in such arrangements, the existence of excessive densification was 11.9% and the excessive burden of rent, 13.6%.

In 2018, 44.8% of the black or brown population lived in households without a washing machine, while among whites this percentage was 21.0%. Evidence that the black or brown population, especially women, has a higher burden of domestic work, such as laundry, among other unpaid jobs.

Violence: Blacks or browns 2.7 times more likely to be murdered than whites

The homicide rate (quotient of the total number of homicides registered in the Ministry of Health’s Mortality Information System – SIM – for a given year and the country’s population in the same year, multiplied by 100,000 inhabitants) in Brazil, in 2017 , was 16.0 for whites and 43.4 for blacks or browns. That is, a black or brown person was 2.7 times more likely to be a homicide victim than a white person.

The historical series also reveals that while the rate remained stable for whites, it rose for blacks or browns between 2012 (37.2) and 2018 (43.4), which represents about 255,000 homicide deaths. registered in SIM in six years.

In all age groups, the homicide rate of blacks or mulattos exceeded that of whites. The homicide rate for blacks or browns aged 15 to 29 reached 98.5 in 2017, compared to 34.0 for whites. For young black or brown men, the rate was 185.0.

More than half of black or brown students were studying in establishments in areas at risk of violence

The National School Health Survey (PeNSE) 2015 brings a series of indicators about students attending the 9th grade of elementary school, which reveal that blacks or browns lived more violent experiences than whites.

When asked if they had been involved in a fight in which someone used a firearm in the 30 days prior to the survey, the answer was affirmative for 4.9% of white students and 6.2% of blacks or browns. When the fight had a weapon, the percentages were 7.0% and 8.4%, respectively. In addition, 13.1% of white students and 15.1% of black or brown students had been physically assaulted by an adult in the family at any time within the 30 days prior to the survey.

Also according to PeNSE 2015, 13.1% of white students in 9th grade and 15.4% of blacks or browns did not attend school due to lack of security on the way home-school or school, in the 30 days prior to search. More than half of black or brown students (53.9%) were studying in establishments located in areas at risk of violence, among white students, this percentage was 45.7%. The difference is more pronounced when compared to black or brown (40.7%) and white (29.5%) private school students.

Political representation: Only 24.4% of federal deputies (elected to the National Congress of Brazil), 28.9% of state deputies (elected to state Legislative Assemblies) and 42.1% of elected councilors (elected to Municipal Chambers) are black or brown.

In Brazil, the current picture is of underrepresentation of the black or brown population in the House of Representatives, state legislative assemblies and city councils: only 24.4% of federal deputies and 28.9% of state deputies elected in 2018 and 42.1% of the councilors elected in 2016 in the country were black or brown.

In a perfectly balanced situation, the ratio of the proportion of black or brown parliamentarians elected by a unit to the proportion of people of the same color or race would be 1.0. However, in all federation units this ratio was lower than 1.0 in the 2018 elections. Amazonas (0.93) and Rondônia reached the lowest level of underrepresentation (0.90). Rio Grande do Norte and Rio Grande do Sul have no elected federal deputy who has declared himself black or brown to the Electoral Justice.

Under-representation of this population group cannot be attributed solely to a lack of available candidacies, at least as regards the proportional legislative elections from 2014 to 2018. There is a greater proportion of black or brown people nominating for federal deputy positions. (41.8%), state deputy (49.6%) and councilors (48.7%) than candidates with this profile effectively elected.

However, while 9.7% of the candidates for federal deputy of white people had revenues equal to or greater than 1 million reais, among the applications of black or brown people only 2.7% had at least that amount. Among the applications that had revenues of 1 million reais or more, only 16.2% were black or brown candidates.

In 2018, black or brown women constituted 2.5% of federal deputies and 4.8% of elected state deputies, and in 2016 5.0% of councilors. Considering only the elected women, they were 16.9%, 31.1% and 36.8%, respectively.

Population of Brazil

Population of 3 states of Brazil
Brazil has 26 states (estados) and one federal district (distrito federal)

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Dilemma X, LLC provides research dedicated to the progression of economic development. Our services aid clients in enhancing overall production statistics. Please visit http://www.dilemma-x.com for more information

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