See update: March 13, 2013
Italian-Argentinian Jorge Mario Bergoglio becomes Pope Francis I- Is this really a break from the Catholic tradition of Popes?
The other Christian Pope: Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch -The 2 Christian worlds
The Orthodox Catholic Church is the second largest Christian Church in the world
As the Roman Catholic Cardinals Conclave is set to begin the process to elect the next Pope learn about the 2nd Christian Pope, the Ecumenical Patriarch or Archbishop of Constantinople.
Patriarch Bartholomew and Pope Benedict XVI
Patriarch Bartholomew and Pope Francis
His All Holiness, Bartholomew I, Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch is the 270th successor of the 2,000 year-old local Christian Church founded by St. Andrew the Apostle.
As Archbishop of Constantinople and New Rome, Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew occupies the First Throne of the Orthodox Christian Church and presides in a fraternal spirit among all the Orthodox Primates. The Ecumenical Patriarch has the historical and theological responsibility to initiate and coordinate actions among the Churches of Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, Russia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Georgia, Cyprus, Greece, Poland, Albania, The Czech Land and Slovakia, Finland, Estonia, and numerous archdioceses in the old and new worlds. This includes the convening of councils or meetings, facilitating inter-church and inter-faith dialogues and serving as the primary expresser of Church unity as a whole. As Ecumenical Patriarch he transcends every national and ethnic group on a global level and today is the spiritual leader of approximately 250 million faithful world-wide.
The Greek Orthodox Church of America was founded as an Archdiocese of the Ecumenical Throne in 1922. As such, the Archdiocese of America is an eparchy of the Ecumenical Patriarch. The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese is blessed to have as its Primate ad Patriarchal, His Eminence Archbishop Demetrios, who was elected Archbishop in 1999 by the Holy and Sacred Synod of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
August 13, 1961, Holy Diaconate, receiving the ecclesiastical name Bartholomew
October 19, 1969, Holy Priesthood
Christmas 1973, Metropolitan of Philadelphia (Asia Minor)
January 14, 1990, Enthronement as Metropolitan of Chalcedon
October 22, 1991, Elected 270th Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch
November 2, 1991, Enthronement in the Patriarchal Cathedral in the Phanar
Video: Video: Ecumenical Patriarch in Rome with the Pope
Bartholomew I recognizes before the Pope the capacity of uniting of the Second Vatican Council
Source: The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople
Video: Cardinals set Tuesday, March 12, 2013 as start to elect the next Pope
Video: The Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I
Video: Christianity A History “Rome” 1/3
Video: Christianity A History “Rome” 2/3
Video: Christianity A History “Rome” 3/3
Video: BBC- Ancient Rome The Rise and Fall of An Empire: Constantine
Christianity across the Roman Empire
Christianity in Africa
Ethiopian Orthodox Christians
Ethiopia (Axum) was converted to Christianity through the efforts of St. Frumentius around 380 AD (or CE/Common Era)
Frumentius was a Syrophoenician (Syria and Phoenicia) Greek born in Tyre.
Coptic Orthodox, Ethiopian Orthodox, Eritrean Orthodox
Video: The views that some have of what St. Frumentius means to Africans who follow traditional African religion
The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa
Frederick John Dealtry Lugard, the colonial administrator of Hong Kong and Nigeria for Britain, pushed for indirect rule in colonial Africa. Lugard outlined the reasons and methods that should be employed in the colonization of Africa by Britain. It included spreading Christianity and saw state sponsored colonization as a way to protect Christian missionaries and foreign powers. Although the Protestants Christian faith was brought by the British into Africa other European powers adopted some of these principals to convert Africans into Catholic Christians.
Religions in Africa as of 1913
Europeans refered to Africans that followed Islam (Muslims) as “Mohammedans” and those Africans who followed traditional African religion “heathens” in 1913 -Christians mainly lived in Southern Africa where the Dutch, Germans and British colonized and in Abyssinia (Ethiopia) that had long converted to Christianity in 380 AD (or CE/Common Era)
Click map to enlarge
Africa religions post European colonial era and the expansion of Christian missionary missions
Pope Benedict XVI arrives for a mass for the local bishops and priests at Sao Paolo Church in Luanda, Angola, 21 March 2009. After starting his first trip to Africa in Cameroon, Pope Benedict XVI arrived in Angola on 20 March on the second leg of his week-long maiden trip as pontiff to the continent. Pope Benedict XVI on 21 March called for the further evangelization of the African continent on the second day of his first visit to Angola. Five hundred years after Catholic missionaries began converting people in present-day Angola to Christianity – the first country in sub-Saharan Africa to be evangelized – many people still lacked direction and feared unholy spirits and powers, he told a mass attended by local bishops and priests in Luanda’s Sao Paulo church.
Video: Pope warned African Christian bishops about what he called the dangerous act of combining traditional African religion with the Christianity
The Pope visited Benin
Christianity spreads around the world and brings in people of color
Video: Christianity A History “Dark Continents”
Christianity spreads around the world
Coat of arms of Pope Benedict XVI
The Pope’s coat of arms contains the African Moor’s head of Freising, Germany
The Moor’s head is used on the crest of many European seals and crest not only in Germany
Armour bearings have been in common use by soldiers and the nobility since the Middle Ages.
At the same time, an ecclesiastical heraldry for clergy also developed. This heraldic usage follows exactly the same rules as civic heraldry with regard to the composition and definition of the shield, but surrounds it with religious or Church symbols and emblems according to one’s ecclesiastical rank in Holy Orders, jurisdiction and dignity.
There is an at least 800-year-old tradition for Popes to have their own personal coat of arms, in addition to the symbols proper to the Apostolic See. Particularly during the Renaissance and the centuries that followed, it was customary to mark with the arms of the reigning Supreme Pontiff all his principal works. Indeed, Papal coats of arms appear on buildings and in various publications, decrees and documents.
Popes often used their family shield or composed their own with symbols indicating their ideal of life or referring to past events or experiences, or even elements connected with specific Pontifical programmes. At times, they even added a variant to a shield that they had adopted on becoming a Bishop.
Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, elected Pope and taking the name Benedict XVI, has chosen a coat of arms rich in symbolism and meaning that transmits to history his personality and Pontificate.
A coat of arms consists of a shield bearing several important symbols and surrounded by elements that indicate the person’s dignity, rank, title, jurisdiction and more.
Pope Benedict XVI’s shield contains symbols he had already used in his arms when he was Archbishop of Munich and Freising, and subsequently as Cardinal. However, they are arranged differently in the new composition.
In the dexter corner (to the left of the person looking at it) is a Moor’s head in natural colour brown with red lips, crown and collar. This is the ancient emblem of the Diocese of Freising, founded in the eighth century, which became a Metropolitan Archdiocese with the name of München und Freising in 1818, subsequent to the Concordat between Pius VII and King Maximilian Joseph of Bavaria June 5,1817.
The Moor’s head is not rare in European heraldry. It still appears today in the arms of Sardinia and Corsica, as well as in the blazons of various noble families. Italian heraldry, however, usually depicts the Moor wearing a white band around his head instead of a crown, indicating a slave who has been freed; whereas in German heraldry the Moor is shown wearing a crown. The Moor’s head is common in the Bavarian tradition.
Source: Mons. Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo
In 712 European Jews helped black African Muslim Moor invaders capture Spain, ending Visogoth rule and beginning a 150 year period of relative peace, in which European Jews were free to study and practice religion as they wished.
The Moors inhabited Europe’s Iberian Peninsula including present day Spain and Portugal and the region of Africa north of the Sahara Desert and west of the Nile and western Africa. The modern northwestern African countries of Morocco and Mauritania have names that derive from “Moor”.
The Roman Latin term “Mauri” described the native black inhabitants of North Africa west of modern Tunisia. “Moor” comes from the Roman Latin word “Mauri” or Greek word “Mavros” or the derivative Maures, which described the peoples of North Africa. A Maure was anything which is black and represents Africa.
In 711, the Moors invaded Visigoth (modern Spain), Christian Hispania (Iberian Peninsula). Under their leader, an African Berber general named Tariq ibn-Ziyad, they brought most of the Iberian Peninsula under Islamic rule in an eightyear campaign.
The Moors ruled in the Iberian peninsula, except for areas in the northwest and the largely Basque regions in the Pyrenees, and in North Africa for several decades. The Pyrenees are range of mountains that form a natural border between France and Spain. They separate the Iberian Peninsula from France.
The Tragedy of Othello, The Moor of Venice is a tragedy by William Shakespeare written around 1603. Othello is referred to as a “Moor”, but for Elizabethan Englishmen, this term refered to the Berbers of North Africa, or to the people we would now call “black” (that is, people of black African descent). In William Shakespeare’s other plays, Shakespeare had previously depicted both a Berber Moor (in The Merchant of Venice) and a black Moor (in Titus Andronicus).
In 1492 King Ferdinand and Isabella expelled the entire Jewish community is expelled from Spain. This occurred when the Spanish Army defeated black African Muslim Moorish forces in Granada, thereby restoring the whole of Spain to European Christian rule.
In 1494 Jews of Florence and Tuscany were expelled.
In 1497 Portugal expelled its Jews. King Manuel of Portugal agreed to marry the daughter of Spain’s monarchs. One of the conditions for the marriage was the expulsion of Portugal’s Jewish community. In actuality only a few Jews were exiled from Portugal and the rest were converted by force to Christianity. On March 19, 1497 (the first day of Passover), Jewish parents were ordered to take their children, between the ages of four and fourteen, to Lisbon. Upon arrival, the parents were informed that their children were going to be taken away from them and were to be given to Christian Catholic families to be raised as good Catholics.
Video: Othello 1965 Laurence Olivier in blackface “Othello, the Moor of Venice” by William Shakespeare
Charlemagne (Charles the Great and Holy Roman Emperor)
In 568 a new Barbarian invasion brought the Lombards of Alboin to Italy.
Charlemagne was born in the late 740s near Liège in modern day Belgium, the son of the Frankish king Pepin the Short. Charlemagne was a king of the Franks (what is now France), and he became the first Holy Roman Emperor.
Charlemagne spent the early part of his reign on several military campaigns to expand his kingdom.
Charlemagne would wage wars was against the Lombards. The Lombards who ruled a Kingdom in Italy.The Franks descende into Italy to support the Christian Pope. He would extend his dominance to the south, conquering the kingdom of the Lombards in northern Italy.
The black African Moors, who ruled over Spain, began to expand into Frankish lands (now France). The Moors would invade Visigothic Narbonne in 721, the Battle of Toulouse in Aquitaine. The Moors in 725 would invade Frankish Burgundy resulting in the burning of Autun. A large scale Moorish invasion into Aquitaine culminated the 732 Frankish victory at the Battle of Tours (in France).
The Franks would later capture Narbonne and drive the Moors back across the Pyrenees into Spain.
Charlemagne invaded Saxony (in Eastern Germany) in 772 and eventually achieved its total conquest and conversion to Christianity.
In 778, Charlemagne invaded northern Spain (Roncesvalles Campaign), for the first time, then controlled by the black north African Moors. A large portion of Spain was then held by the Moors. Invaders from the Caliphate of Damascus entered Moorish Spain, and the Moors invited Charlemagne to help them. Charlemagne led an army across the Pyrenees Mountains into Spain. He succeeded in putting his Moorish friends back into possession of their lands in Spain and then set out on his return to his own Empire.
The Franks and Moors would begin to fight throughout the Mediterrannean Sea.
The conflict between the Franks and the Moors determined who would control Western Europe and the spread of Islam or Christianity. These wars would have profound and long-lasting effects on Europe. It would last from about 779-812.
The immense territories which Charlemagne controlled became known as the Carolingian empire.
Video: Moors Head used across Europe
The Vatican Obelisk
St. Peter’s Obelisk from Egypt
In the center of Saint Peter’s Square there is the 4,000 year-old Egyptian obelisk, erected at the current site in 1568. The Egyptian Obelisk was brought to Rome by Emperor Caligula in 37 AD/CE.
The obelisk was originally erected in Egypt by a black African pharaoh of the 5th dynasty of Egypt between 2494–2345 BC/BCE during the Old Kingdom.
U.S. Treaty of Peace and Friendship
Treaty of Peace and Friendship, with additional article; also Ship-Signals Agreement. The treaty was sealed at Morocco with the seal of the Emperor of Morocco June 23, 1786 (25 Shaban, A. H. 1200), and delivered to Thomas Barclay, American Agent, June 28, 1786 (1 Ramadan, A. H. 1200). Original in Arabic. The additional article was signed and sealed at Morocco on behalf of Morocco July 15, 1786 (18 Ramadan, A. H. 1200). Original in Arabic. The Ship-Signals Agreement was signed at Morocco July 6, 1786 (9 Ramadan, A. H. 1200). Original in English.
Certified English translations of the treaty and of the additional article were incorporated in a document signed and sealed by the Ministers Plenipotentiary of the United States, Thomas Jefferson at Paris January 1, 1787, and John Adams at London January 25, 1787.
Treaty and additional article ratified by the United States July 18, 1787. As to the ratification generally, see the notes. Treaty and additional article proclaimed July 18, 1787.
Ship-Signals Agreement not specifically included in the ratification and not proclaimed; but copies ordered by the U.S. Congress July 23, 1787, to be sent to the Executives of the States (Secret Journals of Congress, IV, 869; but see the notes as to this reference).
To all Persons to whom these Presents shall come or be made known- Whereas the United States of America in Congress assembled by their Commission bearing date the twelvth day of May One thousand Seven hundred and Eighty four thought proper to constitute John Adams, Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson their Ministers Plenipotentiary, giving to them or a Majority of them full Powers to confer, treat & negotiate with the Ambassador, Minister or Commissioner of His Majesty the Emperor of Morocco concerning a Treaty of Amity and Commerce, to make & receive propositions for such Treaty and to conclude and sign the same, transmitting it to the United States in Congress assembled for their final Ratification, And by one other (commission bearing date the Eleventh day of March One thousand Seven hundred & Eighty five did further empower the said Ministers Plenipotentiary or a majority of them, by writing under the* hands and Seals to appoint such Agent in the said Business as they might think proper with Authority under the directions and Instructions of the said Ministers to commence & prosecute the said Negotiations & Conferences for the said Treaty provided that the said Treaty should be signed by the said Ministers: And Whereas, We the said John Adams & Thomas Jefferson two of the said Ministers Plenipotentiary (the said Benjamin Franklin being absent) by writing under the Hand and Seal of the said John Adams at London October the fifth, One thousand Seven hundred and Eighty five, & of the said Thomas Jefferson at Paris October the Eleventh of the same Year, did appoint Thomas Barclay, Agent in the Business aforesaid, giving him the Powers therein, which by the said second Commission we were authorized to give, and the said Thomas Barclay in pursuance thereof, hath arranged Articles for a Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the United States of America and His Majesty the Emperor of Morocco, which Articles written in the Arabic Language, confirmed by His said Majesty the Emperor of Morocco & seal’d with His Royal Seal, being translated into the Language of the said United States of America, together with the Attestations thereto annexed are in the following Words, To Wit.
In the name of Almighty God,
This is a Treaty of Peace and Friendship established between us and the United States of America, which is confirmed, and which we have ordered to be written in this Book and sealed with our Royal Seal at our Court of Morocco on the twenty fifth day of the blessed Month of Shaban, in the Year One thousand two hundred, trusting in God it will remain permanent.
We declare that both Parties have agreed that this Treaty consisting of twenty five Articles shall be inserted in this Book and delivered to the Honorable Thomas Barclay, the Agent of the United States now at our Court, with whose Approbation it has been made and who is duly authorized on their Part, to treat with us concerning all the Matters contained therein.
If either of the Parties shall be at War with any Nation whatever, the other Party shall not take a Commission from the Enemy nor fight under their Colors.
If either of the Parties shall be at War with any Nation whatever and take a Prize belonging to that Nation, and there shall be found on board Subjects or Effects belonging to either of the Parties, the Subjects shall be set at Liberty and the Effects returned to the Owners. And if any Goods belonging to any Nation, with whom either of the Parties shall be at War, shall be loaded on Vessels belonging to the other Party, they shall pass free and unmolested without any attempt being made to take or detain them.
A Signal or Pass shall be given to all Vessels belonging to both Parties, by which they are to be known when they meet at Sea, and if the Commander of a Ship of War of either Party shall have other Ships under his Convoy, the Declaration of the Commander shall alone be sufficient to exempt any of them from examination.
If either of the Parties shall be at War, and shall meet a Vessel at Sea, belonging to the other, it is agreed that if an examination is to be made, it shall be done by sending a Boat with two or three Men only, and if any Gun shall be Bred and injury done without Reason, the offending Party shall make good all damages.
If any Moor shall bring Citizens of the United States or their Effects to His Majesty, the Citizens shall immediately be set at Liberty and the Effects restored, and in like Manner, if any Moor not a Subject of these Dominions shall make Prize of any of the Citizens of America or their Effects and bring them into any of the Ports of His Majesty, they shall be immediately released, as they will then be considered as under His Majesty’s Protection.
If any Vessel of either Party shall put into a Port of the other and have occasion for Provisions or other Supplies, they shall be furnished without any interruption or molestation.
If any Vessel of the United States shall meet with a Disaster at Sea and put into one of our Ports to repair, she shall be at Liberty to land and reload her cargo, without paying any Duty whatever.
If any Vessel of the United States shall be cast on Shore on any Part of our Coasts, she shall remain at the disposition of the Owners and no one shall attempt going near her without their Approbation, as she is then considered particularly under our Protection; and if any Vessel of the United States shall be forced to put into our Ports, by Stress of weather or otherwise, she shall not be compelled to land her Cargo, but shall remain in tranquillity untill the Commander shall think proper to proceed on his Voyage.
If any Vessel of either of the Parties shall have an engagement with a Vessel belonging to any of the Christian Powers within gunshot of the Forts of the other, the Vessel so engaged shall be defended and protected as much as possible untill she is in safety; And if any American Vessel shall be cast on shore on the Coast of Wadnoon (1) or any coast thereabout, the People belonging to her shall be protected, and assisted untill by the help of God, they shall be sent to their Country.
If we shall be at War with any Christian Power and any of our Vessels sail from the Ports of the United States, no Vessel belonging to the enemy shall follow untill twenty four hours after the Departure of our Vessels; and the same Regulation shall be observed towards the American Vessels sailing from our Ports.-be their enemies Moors or Christians.
If any Ship of War belonging to the United States shall put into any of our Ports, she shall not be examined on any Pretence whatever, even though she should have fugitive Slaves on Board, nor shall the Governor or Commander of the Place compel them to be brought on Shore on any pretext, nor require any payment for them.
If a Ship of War of either Party shall put into a Port of the other and salute, it shall be returned from the Fort, with an equal Number of Guns, not with more or less.
The Commerce with the United States shall be on the same footing as is the Commerce with Spain or as that with the most favored Nation for the time being and their Citizens shall be respected and esteemed and have full Liberty to pass and repass our Country and Sea Ports whenever they please without interruption.
Merchants of both Countries shall employ only such interpreters, & such other Persons to assist them in their Business, as they shall think proper. No Commander of a Vessel shall transport his Cargo on board another Vessel, he shall not be detained in Port, longer than he may think proper, and all persons employed in loading or unloading Goods or in any other Labor whatever, shall be paid at the Customary rates, not more and not less.
In case of a War between the Parties, the Prisoners are not to be made Slaves, but to be exchanged one for another, Captain for Captain, Officer for Officer and one private Man for another; and if there shall prove a deficiency on either side, it shall be made up by the payment of one hundred Mexican Dollars for each Person wanting; And it is agreed that all Prisoners shall be exchanged in twelve Months from the Time of their being taken, and that this exchange may be effected by a Merchant or any other Person authorized by either of the Parties.
Merchants shall not be compelled to buy or Sell any kind of Goods but such as they shall think proper; and may buy and sell all sorts of Merchandise but such as are prohibited to the other Christian Nations.
All goods shall be weighed and examined before they are sent on board, and to avoid all detention of Vessels, no examination shall afterwards be made, unless it shall first be proved, that contraband Goods have been sent on board, in which Case the Persons who took the contraband Goods on board shall be punished according to the Usage and Custom of the Country and no other Person whatever shall be injured, nor shall the Ship or Cargo incur any Penalty or damage whatever.
No vessel shall be detained in Port on any presence whatever, nor be obliged to take on board any Article without the consent of the Commander, who shall be at full Liberty to agree for the Freight of any Goods he takes on board.
If any of the Citizens of the United States, or any Persons under their Protection, shall have any disputes with each other, the Consul shall decide between the Parties and whenever the Consul shall require any Aid or Assistance from our Government to enforce his decisions it shall be immediately granted to him.
If a Citizen of the United States should kill or wound a Moor, or on the contrary if a Moor shall kill or wound a Citizen of the United States, the Law of the Country shall take place and equal Justice shall be rendered, the Consul assisting at the Tryal, and if any Delinquent shall make his escape, the Consul shall not be answerable for him in any manner whatever.
If an American Citizen shall die in our Country and no Will shall appear, the Consul shall take possession of his Effects, and if there shall be no Consul, the Effects shall be deposited in the hands of some Person worthy of Trust, untill the Party shall appear who has a Right to demand them, but if the Heir to the Person deceased be present, the Property shall be delivered to him without interruption; and if a Will shall appear, the Property shall descend agreeable to that Will, as soon as the Consul shall declare the Validity thereof.
The Consuls of the United States of America shall reside in any Sea Port of our Dominions that they shall think proper; And they shall be respected and enjoy all the Privileges which the Consuls of any other Nation enjoy, and if any of the Citizens of the United States shall contract any Debts or engagements, the Consul shall not be in any Manner accountable for them, unless he shall have given a Promise in writing for the payment or fulfilling thereof, without which promise in Writing no Application to him for any redress shall be made.
If any differences shall arise by either Party infringing on any of the Articles of this Treaty, Peace and Harmony shall remain notwithstanding in the fullest force, untill a friendly Application shall be made for an Arrangement, and untill that Application shall be rejected, no appeal shall be made to Arms. And if a War shall break out between the Parties, Nine Months shall be granted to all the Subjects of both Parties, to dispose of their Effects and retire with their Property. And it is further declared that whatever indulgences in Trade or otherwise shall be granted to any of the Christian Powers, the Citizens of the United States shall be equally entitled to them.
This Treaty shall continue in full Force, with the help of God for Fifty Years.
We have delivered this Book into the Hands of the before-mentioned Thomas Barclay on the first day of the blessed Month of Ramadan, in the Year One thousand two hundred.
I certify that the annex’d is a true Copy of the Translation made by Issac Cardoza Nunez, Interpreter at Morocco, of the treaty between the Emperor of Morocco and the United States of America.
See related link on the black African Moors in Europe
Santa Claus (“Saint Nicholas”) under fire over black faced helpers
Black African images used in the European Christian Church- Pope Francis and Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI pray together in front of the black Madonna