A look back at the black/African descent demographics of Cuba, Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic

A look back at the black/African descent demographics of Cuba, Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic

This is a brief look back, as reported in American newspapers, at the black/African descent populations within 3 Spanish speaking regions of the Caribbean: Puerto Rico, Cuba and Dominican Republic.

In the United States there is often confusion that there are Black Hispanics/Latinos and White Hispanics/Latinos from the Caribbean, Central America and South America. There are Indigenous descent Hispanics/Latinos in the United States with origins in Mexico, Central America and South America. Hispanic/Latino defines place of origin only and does not define one’s race or ethnicity. One can be of any race or ethnicity and identify as Hispanic/Latino. African descent people from the Spanish speaking Americas are not “Spanish” or “Spaniards”.

See: Hispanics and Latinos: Who are they? A look back on the conversations

Puerto Rico
The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico was ceded to the United States as a result of the Spanish-American War. Puerto Ricans were granted US citizenship in 1917.

Cuba
Large numbers of African slaves were imported to work the coffee and sugar plantations, and Havana became the launching point for the annual treasure fleets bound for Spain from Mexico and Peru. Spanish rule eventually provoked an independence movement and occasional rebellions were harshly suppressed. US intervention during the Spanish-American War in 1898 assisted the Cubans in overthrowing Spanish rule. The Treaty of Paris established Cuban independence from Spain in 1898 and, following three-and-a-half years of subsequent US military rule, Cuba became an independent republic in 1902 after which the island experienced a string of governments mostly dominated by the military and corrupt politicians.

Dominican Republic
The island of Hispaniola is divided into two separate, sovereign nations: the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic on the east and French/Creole-speaking Haiti on the west. In 1821, Dominican Republic was conquered and ruled by the Haitians for 22 years under the Unification of Hispaniola (1822–1844). It finally attained independence as the Dominican Republic in 1844. In 1861, the Dominicans voluntarily returned to the Spanish Empire, but two years later they launched a war that restored independence in 1865. In 1869, President Ulysses S. Grant sent U.S. Marines to the Dominican Republic. President Woodrow Wilson ordered the U.S. occupation of the Dominican Republic in 1916. President Warren G. Harding ended the U.S. occupation in October 1922.

1889

1898

1916

1938

__________
President Barack Obama visits Cuba- A look back at African populated Cuba
https://dilemma-x.net/2016/03/19/president-barack-obama-visits-cuba-a-look-back-at-african-populated-cuba/

Is there still a fear of a black Cuba? A brief look back in history
https://dilemma-x.net/2015/01/17/is-there-still-a-fear-of-a-black-cuba-a-brief-look-back-in-history/

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